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Year : 2021  |  Volume : 1  |  Issue : 1  |  Page : 21-24

Expanding the phenotype of neurological manifestations of dengue fever: Acute necrotizing encephalopathy

Department of Pediatrics, Pt B D Sharma Postgraduate Institute of Medical Sciences, Rohtak, Haryana, India

Correspondence Address:
Dr. Arpit Mittal
Department of Pediatrics, Pt B D Sharma Postgraduate Insititute of Medical Sciences, Rohtak - 124 001, Haryana
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Source of Support: None, Conflict of Interest: None

DOI: 10.4103/ipcares.ipcares_2_21

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Background: Neurological manifestations following dengue fever are increasingly reported and include encephalopathy, encephalitis, neuro-ophthalmic manifestations or Guillain–Barre syndrome-like presentation. Herein, we expand the clinical spectrum of this neurological repertoire by describing two patients presenting with acute necrotizing encephalopathy of childhood (ANEC) following dengue fever. Clinical Description: Both patients presented with features of acute febrile encephalopathy following an acute febrile illness that proved to be dengue fever. Laboratory investigations revealed thrombocytopenia (patient 1), transaminitis and normal findings on cerebrospinal fluid analysis (patient 1 and 2). Both the patients tested positive for NS1 antigen and dengue serology. Neuroimaging revealed bilateral symmetrical thalamic lesions with cerebellar, midbrain, and cortical white matter lesions suggestive of ANEC. Management: Patient 1 received supportive treatment while patient 2 received pulse methylprednisolone therapy along with supportive treatment. Both the patients had complete clinic-radiological recovery. Conclusion: ANEC following dengue fever may have a relatively benign course, besides the fulminant course that has been described earlier in a single case.

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